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PV Modules

Una comparazione nel mondo reale dei Moduli FV Mono, Poly, PERC e Dual.

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Installation date: 09-03-2020


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* Questa è unaprova sul campo, pertanto i risultati sono specifici per questo impianto in questa ubicazione.,Vi preghiamo di cercare la soluzione migliore per la vostra situazione particolare, giacché i risultati possono differire in base alle influenze ambientali.

Cooled Delivery van

Keep the goods cool. Without the noise.

When delivering your popular chilled or frozen products, you'll want to have a hassle-free power solution that lets you keep your eyes on the road while keeping the food perfectly chilled for consumption. More and more cities now demand that engines are switched off when parked, some cities prohibit the use of noisy generators in their centres. The electric stand by option offered by many manufacturers is the solution here. When the engine is switched off, the service battery powers the refrigerator equipment to keep the goods cool.

The Victron Energy modular system components allow cooling professionals to build a complete system that fits exactly to the required specifications and budget. The advantage of working with just one brand means having just one clear contact for upgrades or to resolve any rare issues that may occur. The global network of Victron Energy Professionals has over 45 years of experience and are ready, willing and able to translate your challenges into robust solutions that put the power of know how right by your side.

Keep it cool, keep it silent, keep it green.

Depending on the volume that needs to be cooled, different options are offered by the cooling equipment manufacturers. Small vans can rely on cooling equipment in electric stand-by mode that are based on DC powered (12/24V) cooling. Larger trucks or trailers are better off with AC (110/230V) based stand by cooling, due to wiring complications that come with these high energy consumers.

For now, let's assume we're designing for an average size DC cooling system based on the Mercedes Sprinter van.

Consumo di energia giornaliera


Peak power requirement


In this example

The daily energy consumption is calculated by adding up the sum of all consumers X how much time they will be used in a day: 750W x 2,5 hrs running on standby mode from the battery. Add all the Watts of the simultaneously used consumers to calculate the required peak power.

Obvious choices

System Design


Find below some of the main design considerations explained, click on the questions for our engineers' recommendations.

  • 01

    What type and size of service battery is sufficient?

    Victron Energy offers multiple options for the service battery, but when the daily power demand is extremely intense and superfast charging is essential, Lithium batteries are by far the best choice. In terms of economics: compared to lead-acid, Lithium has a lower cost per cycle due to its cycle life of ±3000 charge/discharges at 70% Depth of Discharge and is extremely lightweight which saves fuel. Working with Lithium also leads to different consequences for the other system components that are directly attached to (or manage) the batteries.
    Victron Energy offers exceptional quality batteries with high performance characteristics that are thoroughly tested. Our datasheets offer a fair picture of the performance and expected life cycles, meaning no investment surprises along the way. Our wide range of batteries

    The professionals' choice

    Lithium 12,8V Smart 200Ah. This extremely compact and light box is packed with a staggering 2560 kWh of energy, more than enough to supply the 1.9k daily energy consumption, even when keeping 20% in reserve for life cycle reasons. In this case, the 750W cooling needed to be able to run for 2,5 hours per day in standby mode. Providing 5 hours of cooling in standby mode (assuming the cooling actually runs 50% of the time and the engine powers the cooling directly when driving). Thanks to the fast charging characteristics of Lithium, the battery can be fully charged by the engines’ two alternators in just over 2 hours when fully discharged. Since the cooling is powered again by the engine, all the available amps can be dedicated to battery charging. See also ‘Combining a smart alternator with a second, high powered alternator to fast charge a lithium service battery safely'.
  • 02

    Combining a smart alternator with a second, high powered alternator to fast charge a lithium service battery safely.

    Master all challenges that come with combining (smart) alternators, starter and service batteries (lithium or lead-acid) with our wide range of DC-DC chargers, battery combiners or Smart BMS products. Our solutions are specially designed for vehicles and make sure both lead-acid and lithium service batteries can be properly (dis)charged, without damaging the (smart) alternator(s) or the batteries.

    The right solution primarily depends on the combination of your alternator(s) (smart or conventional) and service battery type (lead-acid or lithium), amongst other factors. Feel free to ask a local Victron Energy installer for advice Ask your local installer

    Limiting current from 2 different sized alternators to not exceed the maximum charge current of the lithium battery.

    Thanks to the fast charging characteristics of Lithium, the chosen Lithium battery has a recommended continuous charge current of 100 Amps (max 400A, but due to cycle life 100A is recommended as per the datasheet). Mercedes engineers recommend not to take more than a 50% continuous charge current from the 80A smart alternator, which then safely delivers 40 Amps, not enough to benefit from the full charge current potential of the battery. The only available high-power alternator that fitted the particular engine was an unregulated one, rated with 180 Amps. Again, only using 50% continuously to not overload the second alternator delivers the total charge capacity to 130 Amps, enough to charge the starter battery and the service battery at the same time.

    The engine's alternator: 40 Amps (80A/2)
    The second alternator: 90 Amps (180A/2)
    Total charging safe capacity: 130 Amps

    To ensure the recommended charge current of the Lithium battery (100A) and the alternators are not exceeded, Current Limiting needs to be applied.

    The professionals' choice

    2x Orion-Tr 12/12-18: To charge the service battery with the engines standard alternator, this professional ‘Battery-to-Battery' DC-DC charger requests a safe charge current from the smart alternator. In fact, two Orions are connected in parallel to meet the 40 Amps charge current, which is delivered directly to the service battery through the Smart BMS Current Limiter.

    To meet the maximum charge potential, but not exceed it, the current from both alternators also needs to be retrieved within safe margins of the battery (current limiting required):

    Battery Management System BMS 12/200: to limit the total charge current (also from the high powered alternator) and to protect the Lithium battery from excessive (dis)charge, this compact and robust solution is the perfect choice for systems with a load up to 200A. The device consists of a Battery Management system, Current Limiter, Battery Combiner and BatteryProtect in one. This manages and charges the Lithium battery quickly and efficiently. It limits the charge current to the safe zone of the alternator output specifications, to prevent the alternator from overheating or early wear and prevents excessive discharge of the battery.

  • 03

    Do you need shore power to charge the lithium battery?

    Although it is unlikely that this particular setup needs shore power, due to the dual alternator setup, it's better to be prepared for the worst case scenario. A built in Blue Smart IP22 Charger provides a 30 Amps charge current per hour, charging a completely empty battery overnight. The second charge output will also take good care of the starter battery.

Professional challenges?
Ask your local Victron Energy Professional.

The number of options for each component are quite extensive. This is why we train Victron Energy Professionals to perfectly translate your exact needs into robust solutions. They feel a great responsibility to always advise the right solution (even when this may sometimes go against what clients have in mind initially). Everything to keep you satisfied and your investments secure for years to come.
Always feel free to ask your local Victron Energy Professional
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System diagram

for a lithium battery based system

How do the system design considerations translate into a robust system?

Caricamento in corso


Vehicles and boats are equipped with engine(s) that generate the power to move, but also generate electrical energy through alternators. Alternators generate electrical energy with a direct current (DC) from mechanical energy, which is used to store the energy in the battery bank or power DC-equipment directly.

Small engines usually have small alternators, larger engines usually have larger alternators, sometimes they are even equipped with (extra) high-output alternators to increase the output. Vehicles, especially with Euro 4/5 engines, may come with smart (variable voltage) alternators, controlling the output based on vehicle operating conditions. This renders it unsuccessful at charging a secondary battery system to a usable level. Lithium service batteries may put a heavy load on the engine’s alternator, which probably needs to be protected from overheating or early wear.

Whatever your engine’s alternator, or service battery type, Victron Energy offers a wide range of solutions to safely connect any alternator to any battery bank, without damaging the smart alternator or batteries. Please check our datasheets for more information. Also, check your manufacturer's documentation to see what output your alternator can provide. With Lithium service banks and conventional or smart alternators we recommend to calculate with 50% the alternator output spec, to not overload the alternator.

See all our DC-DC chargers See all our Battery Combiners See all our (Smart) BMS options

Battery Management Systems

Battery management systems take excellent care of Lithium batteries, protecting the individual cells of LiFePO4 batteries against over voltage, under voltage and over temperature and will shut down or reduce charging (VE.Bus products only) or disconnect the loads when this occurs.

Victron Energy offers several BMS options, in general the VE.Bus BMS and smallBMS signal separate devices to disconnect the charging (Cyrix-Li, DC-DC chargers) or disconnect the loads (BatteryProtect), the other (Smart) BMS versions are designed for vehicles or boats and offer more ‘all-in one’ functionalities.

See all our Battery Management Systems

Battery Monitors

A battery monitor is like a "fuel gauge" for your battery. It records how much power is consumed and charged. The battery monitor calculates the state of charge, remaining capacity and time till empty. The battery voltage does not give an accurate indication of how full the battery is (especially not under load). A battery monitor does.

Victron Energy battery monitors keep track of historical data, like the number of charging cycles, deepest discharge, highest voltage, lowest voltage and so on. It will alert you to critical conditions such as low voltage or low charge and can even shut down the entire power supply to avoid expensive battery damage, or start a generator.

Victron offers battery monitors with or without display, Smart versions allow you to track the detailed data and adjust settings in our free VictronConnect app. See all our Battery Monitors


The BatteryProtect disconnects the battery from non-essential loads before it is below a pre-set level (a complete discharge would damage the battery) or before it has insufficient power left to crank an engine.

There is more to a Victron Energy BatteryProtect. Built-in shutdown delays ensure vital electronics aren’t disconnected in error, i.e. when starting an engine causes a short drop in voltage. It will also automatically reconnect everything when the battery is sufficiently recharged.
The BatteryProtect has a remote switch, so it can be turned on/off via a BMS or switch. The smart version is programmable via the VictronConnect app.

See our range of BatteryProtect models

DC-DC chargers

DC-DC converters, or battery-to-battery chargers (converters with built-in charge algorithms) are used in dual battery systems, where the (smart) alternator and the start battery are combined with the service battery (of equal or different voltages) to charge it. They can also be used to charge applications that have dedicated batteries (eg. bow thrusters), or to power applications that have a voltage different than the service battery bank.

Most DC-DC chargers can be used in 12V or 24V systems and all are suitable for both lead acid and lithium batteries. Some DC-DC charger models can be parallel connected to increase the output current. DC-DC chargers are a perfect and safe solution to charge Lithium battery banks from smart alternators (and lead-acid batteries for that matter).

Charging lithium batteries from the alternator
Most alternators cannot be directly connected to lithium batteries. A lithium battery will draw more current than the alternator can supply, which may result in permanent alternator damage. To not damage the alternator, current limiting is one of the options to stay within the safe zone of the alternator.

Victron offers multiple solutions to solve this problem, of which one of them are the DC-DC converters:

  • DC-DC converters act as a current limiter between the alternator and the battery: the battery can be safely charged without blowing up the alternator.
  • Victron also offers alternative solutions for dual battery systems powered by alternators. Some (smart) BMS products physically limit the current drawn from the alternator, in other systems, battery combiners might be a solid option. See the datasheets for more info.
See our range of DC-DC converters

DC Electronics

DC-equipment is designed to work directly with the power coming out of the battery bank (Direct Current). Especially vehicles and boats can have (a lot of) DC equipment on board (such as control panels, lights, navigation equipment, auto pilot, depth sounders, etc).

Some smaller off-grid systems can solely run on DC, with 12V lights, TV’s or fridges. Larger systems may combine AC and DC consumers.

In any case, it is important to protect the battery against excessive discharge, for this Victron offers the ‘BatteryProtect’.

Service Batteries

The service battery stores power for the system's consumers, providing autonomous power especially for moments when input power sources aren’t (fully) available.

Victron Energy offers several battery technologies, all designed for professional performance, reliability and long service life in the most demanding environments. They come with a 2 year worldwide warranty and our datasheets offer a fair picture of the performance and expected life cycles, meaning no investment surprises along the way.

While there are multiple technologies to choose between, the main choice is between lead-acid and lithium which mainly depends on the expectations of the performance, cost-per-cycle and physical aspects (size/weight).

  • Choose Lead-Acid when:
  • Use occasionally
  • Lower purchase cost
  • Weight and space are not an issue
  • Normal charging
  • Choose Lithium when:
  • Use daily
  • Lower cost per cycle
  • Weight and space considerations
  • Fast charging

Service Batteries

The service battery stores power for the system's consumers, providing autonomous power especially for moments when input power sources aren’t (fully) available.

Victron Energy offers several battery technologies, all designed for professional performance, reliability and long service life in the most demanding environments. They come with a 2 year worldwide warranty and our datasheets offer a fair picture of the performance and expected life cycles, meaning no investment surprises along the way.

While there are multiple technologies to choose between, the main choice is between lead-acid and lithium which mainly depends on the expectations of the performance, cost-per-cycle and physical aspects (size/weight).

  • Choose Lead-Acid when:
  • Use occasionally
  • Lower purchase cost
  • Weight and space are not an issue
  • Normal charging
  • Choose Lithium when:
  • Use daily
  • Lower cost per cycle
  • Weight and space considerations
  • Fast charging

Starter Batteries

Starter batteries are needed to start your engine(s). These batteries are engineered to deal with a large discharge current and enjoy a different technology compared to service batteries. To avoid accidental draining of the starter battery, it should always be isolated from the service batteries. Victron Energy offers multiple solutions for different system types.

Victron Energy offers several Battery Combiners. More comprehensive ways to safely connect the starter- and service battery are also available, including connecting a Battery Combiner to a BMS, all-in-one Smart BMS products or DC-DC chargers. These options may offer more control and configuration options, especially to protect non-regulated alternators from overheating and Lithium batteries from excessive (dis)charging.

See all our Battery Combiners See all our DC-DC chargers See all our (Smart) BMS options


All Victron Energy smart products can be monitored and controlled from the palm of your hand. Just connect the VictronConnect App via Bluetooth and you’ll have direct access to the performance data of your system. You can also easily change settings, turn devices on or off and much more.

Non-smart devices with a VE.Direct port can also become smart, through the use of the VE.Direct Bluetooth Smart dongle

It is also possible to monitor and control your system remotely. VictronConnect-Remote functionality enables Victron products with a VE.Direct interface to be accessed remotely through a GX product, via the VRM online portal. This powerful feature allows full product configuration and monitoring from practically anywhere in the world using the VictronConnect app. The user interface experience is just like the products were connected locally using Bluetooth or a wired VE.Direct to USB interface.

See what the VictronConnect app can do See our GX-devices
System specifications
Here is our recommendation for a cooling van, based on a Lithium service battery.

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Energy consumption
Expected power consumers:
Thermoking B-100 (750W x 2,5hrs/day on standby)
Daily energy consumption required:
Required peak power:
Service battery:
Lithium 12,8V Smart 200Ah
Battery protection
Battery Management System BMS 12/200
This BMS features built-in BatteryProtect functionality and is attached to the - minus, need to isolate DC loads.
Charging the service battery via the engines alternator (see explanation here)
Default alternator:
90 Amps*
Safe output 50%
* See manufacturer datasheet.
Lithium charging:
2x Orion-Tr Smart 12/12-18 isolated
The parallel connected DC-DC chargers deliver ±40 Amp charge current to the Smart BMS 12/200.
Charging the service battery via the second alternator (see explanation here)
Alternator default output:
130 Amps*
Safe output 50%
* See manufacturer data for exact data.
Lithium charging:
Battery Management System BMS 12/200
The BMS manages the battery, the current limiting functionality protects the second alternator, while also drawing power from the DC-DC converters.
Battery monitor:
SmartShunt battery monitor 500A or
BMV 712
Lavorate con VictronConnect
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Why Victron Energy?

The right products for the job

As you are always on the road, you’ll want reliable but cost-effective solutions that power you through the years ahead. It’s important that you can select power supplies that match your exact needs and live up to their spec so they won’t let you down. Victron Energy has a wide range of modular connected products that stay true to their promise. They are Powered by know-how, thanks to 45 years of mastering power challenges with innovation.

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Lithium battery

Why Victron Energy?

Always on. Always ready.

Our robust systems have been proven to deliver unequalled reliability time and time again. This is marked by our worldwide market leadership in power supply equipment for Ambulances, this is illustrated by countless stories of 40+ year old Victron Energy inverters still doing what they were built to do.


Why Victron Energy?

Reliability powers long service life cycles

When making power supply investment decisions, calculations purely based on price can be deceptive. Their true performance and expected service life cycle are equally important. Good thing Victron Energy equipment lives up to their specifications, both in terms of performance and expected life cycle (when used as designed). Our 5 year warranty and fair and fast repair policies mean your investments are protected and under most circumstances, won’t let you down.

years warranty
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Why Victron Energy?

Professional challenges. Accepted.

Whatever powers your vehicles’ electronics, or toolset you are bringing for the job, Victron Energy has one the widest ranges of power supply equipment in the market to power your works of genius. The advantage of working with just one brand that covers it all means having just one contact for upgrades or resolving any rare issues that may occur. Our global network of Victron Energy Professionals are trained with 45 years of problem solving experience. They can translate your challenges into robust solutions that will keep you satisfied and your investments secure for years to come.

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Why Victron Energy?

Professional Vehicles
powered by know-how

See how we solve typical automotive challenges
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Drive through our Professional vehicles know how

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Smart BMS CL 12/100

Safely combine any alternator to Smart Lithium batteries.

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An expert's view: lithium or AGM batteries

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DC-DC Charger

Professional service battery charging with the Orion-TR Smart.

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